TIU Transactions on Inteligent Computing

Nanotechnology and Computational tool based study of CRISPR/Cas-9 research in Biomedical Engineering

Aniket De, Arup Ratan Biswas
2ND Year, B.Tech Biotechnology, Techno India University Kolkata, India;
PhD, Assistant Professor and Head, Department of Chemistry, Techno India University Kolkata, India


Invent of CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 has taken the medical research worldwide to a newer height, particularly in fighting cancer and more deadly diseases that are currently engulfing the mankind at large. Coupling nanotechnology with CRISPR/Cas-9 system has made a tremendous and significant contribution in further boosting the research in oncobiological research. The authors are making an approach to familiarize the new advances taking worldwide in oncobiological research with the help of Computational tools and nanotechnology. The paper would share the concept of interdisciplinary research coupling biological domain with software-based correction and validation of CRISPR/Cas9 activity in achieving correct sequence edit and cleave as well its delivery to the targeted location. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 is a technology evolved from the type II immune system of archaebacteria. Exploring the functionality of Cas9 protein leads the researcher to a sitespecific targeted genetic manipulation. It is a robust technology that is used to make genetic cuts and edits in the DNA but the perfection in editing is yet to be achieved. One of the biggest hurdles in achieving perfection includes the possibility of offtarget cleavage that is ruled out by combining computational tools along with nanotechnology-based CRISPR/Cas-9 research. Using nanotechnology and specific designed computational algorithm, the Cas-9 protein is guided to the targeted site that would not only eliminate the probability of guide RNA leading to off-target cleavage but become more accurate in terms of functionality and specificity. Thus, it is an approach to elucidate the possibility of using nanotechnology (biomedical engineering) as a substitute for guide RNA to specify DNA cleavage by Cas-9 and prevent off-target cutting. The paper is an attempt to focus the interdisciplinary area of computer knowledge with biological domain for effective genetic edition and manipulation for oncobiological as well as biomedical engineering particularly targeting tissue engineering.

Keywords: CRISPR, Cas-9, Biomedical instrumentation, Nanotechnology, Guide RNA, and Off-target cleavage